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Storage Temperatures Necessary to Maintain Cheese Safety
Storage Temperatures Necessary to Maintain Cheese Safety JAY RUSSELL BISHOP and MARIANNE
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Storage Temperatures Necessary to Maintain Cheese Safety

Storage Temperatures Necessary to Maintain Cheese Safety JAY RUSSELL BISHOP and MARIANNE SMUKOWSKI Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research University

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	Storage Temperatures
Necessary to Maintain
INHERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEESE
Cheeses are one of the oldest types of prepared foods. Cheesemaking p
rovided human kind with a means of 
concentrating and preserving
milk at a time when refrigeration was unknown and principles of food preservation were 
vague empirical concepts at best 
(52)
The vast majority of cheese manufactured in the United States is m
ade from 
pasteurized or heat
treated milk, which renders the product
free of most pathogens 
(38, 39, 40). 
The inherent 
characteristics of cheeses made with starter culture addition provide multiple hurdles
that inhibit pathogen growth 
(3, 
. A multiplici
ty of practices other than pasteurization or heat
treatment also contribute significantly to
the 
Temperatures of curd cooking and aging/curing/ripening/storage have an impact on pathogen growth and survival in 
cheese. In hard
cheese types with higher curd cooking temperatur
es, growth is slight 
(68)
. There is considerable 
evidence showing that certain cheeses
do not support growth of pathogens during the aging process and subsequent 
storage 
(11)
. A review of the literature related to the potential
for growth of pathogens in h
ard cheeses that are aged for 
at least 60 days shows that such growth is not likely to occur because of
factors inherent to these cheeses 
(31)
Pathogens that survive the manufacturing process decrease faster at higher storage temperatures
(14)
. The death 
rate 
of 
Salmonella 
in Samsoe cheese was slower at 10
12°C than at 16
20°C 
(36)
. It has been concluded that, for 
traditionally
The FDA/USDA evaluation classified cheeses as follows: Fresh soft 
Queso fresco, Queso de Crema,
Queso de Puna 
Soft unripened (� 50% moisture) 
Cottage, cream, Ricotta
Soft ripened (� 50% moistu
re) 
Mozzarella Semi
soft (�39
50% moisture) 
Blue, Brick, Monterey Jack, Muenster, Provolone Hard ( 39% moisture) 
Cheddar, Colby, Parmesan,
Processed
SPECIFIC CHEESES AND THEIR INHERENT CHARACTERISTICS
Cheeses are typically cat
egorized according to their moisture content:
Soft � 50% Semi
soft�  39 
 50% Hard  39% 
(4, 22)
Hard and semi
soft cheeses are the focus of this research review.
Research by Gengeorgis and colleagues 
(25) 
has yielded results indicative of those obtained
by other researchers, 
which prove
Cheddar is a hard cheese that does not support 
L. monocytogenes 
growth and that causes gradual death at all 
temperatures 
(25)
This
finding
is confirmed by an FDA correspondence 
(11) 
and also agrees with work by Ryser and 
Marth 
(61)
, who reported that growth of 
monocytogenes 
during Cheddar cheese manufacture appeared to be 
inhibited by proper acid development resulting from an active start
culture. Behavior of other pathogens during 
Cheddar manufacture and ripening show similar results. With normal starter activity, inoculated
Staphylococcus aureus 
died rapidly 
(60)
, as did 
Yersinia enterocolitica (67)
. Norholt 
(54) 
illustrated die
off of
Salmonella 
spp. 
fter
2 weeks. 
Salmonella
. This result is supported
(78) 
updated their
L. monocytogen
es 
risk analysis in 2003 with the following results (Table 2).
Utilizing a cluster analysis of predicted risk 
that takes into account the relative risk of listeriosis for the total population on a per
serving and per annum basis, the 
following risk categor
ies were developed for cheese:
High risk 
soft unripened cheeses (cottage, cream)
Moderate risk 
 
Process cheeses
FDA/USDA actually decreased the predicted risk of soft ripened and certain semi
soft cheeses to “Moderate” due to 
increased use
of pasteurized or otherwise heat
treated milk, and effective food s
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