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Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative

Digitization Activities November 4 2009 Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative www digitizationguidelines gov 4 Introduction This document attempts to define work activities relating to the digitization of original cultural materials

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	Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Document Information and Version History
Title
Digitization Activities
Author
Federal Agenc
ies Digitization Guidelines Initiative 
 Still 
Image Working Group
Document Type
Technical Guideline
Publication Date
Date of Revision
Author(s)
September
 2009
FADGI v1
August 2008
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration 
www.archives.gov
internal draft by Steven Puglia, Erin 
Rhodes, and Kevin DeVorsey 
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Introduction
This document attempts to 
define work activities relating to the digitization of 
original cultural materials
The intention is to 
outline a generic sequence of 
high
level 
activities
 for planning and management 
purposes. In this document, we present a conceptual outline
 that accommodates most digitization 
approaches, but 
one that acknowledges all steps may or may not apply, may occur 
in different sequences, 
or may occur simultaneously 
depending on the type of project and the context of the digitization. 
The 
activities described and the general sequencing of the work processes were identified using project 
management outlines from a num
ber of organizations that had significant experience with the digitization 
of cultural materials.
In this document, we define “digitizing” as the creation of digital objects from physical originals. So
called 
“born digital” objects (both born
digital cont
ent and current business records) are not in scope in this 
document at this time, although many of the activities outlined in this document will likely apply to born 
digital materials as well.
We define “digitization” as a complete process that broadly in
cludes: selection, assessment, prioritization, 
project management and tracking, preparation of originals for digitization, metadata collection and creation, 
digitizing, quality management, data collection and management, submission of digital resources to 
delivery systems and into a repository environment, and assessment and evaluation of the digitization 
effort. 
This document divides the processes involved in a digitization workflow into 
four
 main 
phases
Project planning
rocesses occur
ring
 prior to dig
itization
Digital conversion
Post
digitization work
Project planning and management
, data collection, and quality management are
 considered to be 
some of 
the ongoing activities
 throughout all 
four
 phases of the digitization workflow. 
The 
activities desc
ribed
 within each 
phase
 address 
library/
archival issues, imaging and conversion work,
and IT infrastructure issues. Library and a
rchival issues include preparation
 of originals
 for digitization, 
indexing, collection and creation of metadata of all types, a
nd quality control of the digital versions, 
indexing data, and other metadata. Imaging
/conversion
 work includes digitization, creation of derivative 
versions for access, quality control, and metadata creation. IT infrastructure issues include
 collection a
transfer of data to other systems, networked and Web services, databases, and managed storage and backup
Additional IT infrastructure issues include: 
short
term/intermediate 
data 
storage
 backup of digital 
resources
 for disaster recover
and safeguards
 and checks
 to protect against data loss and 
to ensure
 data 
integrity.
The Archives New Zealand 
6 Digitisation Standard
 provides a similar framework for digitization projects 
as this document, and lists a set of mandatory requirements for digitization 
processes. A partial list of those 
requirements, appropriate for cultural heritage institutions, is listed below 
 some of the requirements have 
been reworded to be more generic. We have listed them here as they dovetail nicely with concepts outlined 
in th
e four phases of digitization workflow as described earlier. For a more detailed discussion of the 
Archives New Zealand requirements, go to 
http://continuum.archives.govt.nz/file
s/file/standards/s6.pdf
All digitization and digitization processes must be planned, scoped and documented
An appropriate digitization approach must be selected, documented and implemented
Technical specifications aligned to the digitization requirement
s must be selected, documented and 
implemented
Equipment and software aligned to the digitization requirements must be implemented
Systems to support management of the digital output of digitization must be in place
Guidelines for the preparation of origin
al collections/records must be documented and implemented
All digital objects created must be assigned metadata to document digitizing processes and to support 
ongoing business processes
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Quality assurance and quality control procedures must be defined, doc
umented and implemented
Digital storage and disaster recovery procedures for digital objects and metadata must be defined, 
documented and implemented
Systems for the long
term management of digital objects and metadata must be documented and 
implemented
eservation strategies and processes for digital objects and metadata must be defined, documented and 
implemented 
A large component of post
digitization activities includes content management and preservation within a 
digital repository environment. This 
document does not detail those processes, but instead leaves off after 
submission of digital objects into a managed repository environment. In Open Archival Information System 
(OAIS) parlance, the document addresses “pre
ingestion” activities, or those act
ivities that take place prior 
to submission of digital resources to a digital repository for long
term management. This document does 
not address the processes, procedures, and actions surrounding management of Archival Information 
Packages (AIP) and subse
quent creation and dissemination of Digital Information Packages (DIP). Creation 
of Submission Information Packages (SIP) is only discussed generically, as it is assumed that different 
repositories will have different ingest requirements or procedures. 
n many organizations, digitization processes may create official “record” copies. If this is the case, 
policies, workflow, and infrastructure should be designed to ensure the integrity and authenticity of record 
copies is maintained during the digitization
 process and through submission of digital copies into various 
management and access systems and repositories. ARMA International has developed a set of “Generally 
Accepted Recordkeeping Principles” that suggests records should be created, managed, and mai
ntained 
according to these principles. 
These 
Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles
http://www.arma.org/garp/
 include:
Principle of accountability
Principle of integrity
Principle of protection
Principle o
f compliance
Principle of availability
Principle of retention
Principle of disposition
Principle of transparency
Also, we believe factors developed around the sustainability of file formats can inform the 
conceptualization of digitization activities, rela
ted workflow, and supporting IT infrastructure. Several 
organizations have developed these criteria, including the Library of Congress; the National Library of the 
Netherlands; the State and University Library, Arhus, and the Royal Library, Denmark; and th
e National 
Archives UK. These sustainability concepts may be applied to the digitization process as a whole, not just 
to the creation and management of data formats. Factors to consider may include:
Library of Congress
Sustainability of Digital Format
s, Planning for Library of Congress Collections
http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml
Disclosure
Adoption
Transparency
Self
documentation
External dependencies
Impa
ct of patents
Technical protection mechanisms
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
KB 
National
 Library of the Netherlands
Evaluating File Formats for Long
term Preservation
http://www.kb.nl/hrd/dd/dd_links_en_publicaties/publicaties/KB_file_format_evaluation_method_270
22008.pdf
Openness
Adoption
Complexity
Technical Protection Mechanism (DRM)
Self
documentation
Robustness
Dependencies
KB 
 Denmark
Denmark, the
 State and University Library and the Royal Library, 
Handling File 
Formats
, 2004
http://netarchive.dk/publikationer/FileFormats
2004.pdf
Openness
Portability
Quality
Monitoring obs
olescence
National Archives UK
National Archives, UK, 
Selecting File Formats for Long
Term Preservation
http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/selecting_fil
e_formats.pdf
Open standards
Ubiquity
Stability
Metadata Support
Feature Set
Interoperability
Viability
The following additional criteria should be considered for migration:
Authenticity
Processability
Presentation
Note: These sustainability factors ar
e based on file format characteristics and use and do not reflect 
empirical data obtained through controlled studies.
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Assumptions
Cultural heritage organizations
 digitize 
materials for many purposes:
To facilitate access
For preservation
To prev
ent loss o
f information due to:
Obsolescence
Deterioration
Handling
Theft or destruction
For exhibits, publications, and web use
For researcher
/patron
 requests
To support current business processes
There is not 
a single approach 
 digitization and met
adata creatio
n/management for all projects
Type of original
, media type, quality and condition of 
originals
, nature of information, 
preservation risk level, etc., will determine the complement of approaches for digitization and 
metadata requirements that are matched to
 the 
originals
The specific work process should be tailored to each
 individual digitization effort
Due to differences in the nature of and the media type of the 
originals
 and existing 
copies
Due to the extent and nature of existing descriptive
 or bibliogra
phic
 information
For maximum efficiency and cost
effectiveness
If there is pre
existing descriptive
 or bibliographic
 information (metadata), in either hardcopy 
or electronic form, 
that is 
related to candidate 
materials
, it should be collected and come into
the digitization work process as early as possible, ideall
y in the pre
digitization phase
More descriptive and technical information (metadata) will be created during the co
nversion 
(digitizing) process
Descriptive work will need to be done post
digitizat
ion but prior to the completion of the 
project, if the metadata doe
s not exist prior to conversion
Approach to digital object identifiers may vary by class of digital object
These activities encompass all 
types of originals
manuscripts
books, 
still phot
ography, maps, 
plans, artifacts, audio, video, motion pict
ures, aerial photography, etc.)
Long
term preservation functionality for digitized version
 of 
originals
should be provided by a 
managed repository environment
Accordingly, digitization activities 
should be aligned with 
a managed repository
 and its 
work 
processes and requirements
Digital resources will require metadata at the appropriate level 
 the level and completeness of the 
descriptive and technical metadata will vary depending on the 
original
 and media type. 
The level 
and extent of metadata provided should be determined prior to conversion and should be created 
according to defined criteria/standards, whenever possible
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
General 
Policy Issues 
Policies and procedures relating to dig
itization activities and the management of digitization projects
Define policies and procedures
Implement and ensure compliance with policies and procedures
Different procedures selected depending on class or category of project
Determine complement of di
gital objects, file types, and file formats for both preservation and access 
digitization projects
Recommendations for sustainable formats for digital archival reco
rds and digital master copies
Digital object characteristics (i.e., nature of raster image 
files, digital audio and video files, etc.)
igital
 conversion parameters (i.e., technical specifications followed for the creation of digital 
objects)
inimum complement of metadata required
Creation and management of metadata schema
(s)
Define
 the comple
ment of metadata needed for preservation of digital objects
Define a
ppropriate complement of various metadata to ensure management of assets for 
desired retention time period (short or long term)
Determine when in workflow what metadata is added or created
Determine where metadata will be stored (embedded or in external system or both)
Determine in what formats metadata will exist
Determine r
elationship to identifiers
 of digital objects
Definition of essential characteristics
 (significant properties) of th
e original
curatorial/
archival and 
technical
Determination of appropriate approach and quality levels for digitization
Approaches to digitization
Conversion specifications for preservation reformatting
Establish quality management approach
Establish met
rological approach for scanner and digital conversion equipment performance
Ensure authenticity of digital copies
Verification procedures for digital copies
Comparison and review of digital copy to original record from the 
library/
archival
/curatorial
pers
pective to ensure digital copy satisfies requirements for authentic digital versions
Document chain of custody 
 both original records during digitization and the digital copies
Audit
trail 
 history of actions on the digital copies and related metadata, f
rom creation 
through final submission to digital repository
Verification of fixity information such as checksums and digital signatures
Relationship to identifiers
 of digital objects
If applicable, e
nsure appropriate records management of the digital reso
urces to be created
Define records management issues related to 
the 
digital copy
Define class/status of new copies 
(e.g., records, copies, non
records, master files, 
access/distribution/derivative files) in order to determine digitization approaches and 
nagement of file types and content over time
Identify party/parties responsible for managing the various digital versions and ensure 
appropriate records management depending on status of digital copies
Define procedures and methods for accessing the digita
l copies for most or all 
use
 requests
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Approaches to Digitization
This table illustrates various approaches to digitization and the purposes for conducting digitization work. The actual work activities may vary for each approach.
Purposes for D
igitizati
on of 
Cultural Heritage Materials
Digitization of Current Business 
Records
Improved Access to 
Collections/
Records
External Partnerships
Internal Projects
Classified Records Review
(Federal Agencies)
Preservation Reformatting
Exhibits / Publications / Web
Fee and Reference Requests
Conservation 
Documentation and 
Object Inventory
Support for Current Business 
Processes
Copy/
Record Status 
Assumed to be the same as the 
internal access projects
For potential partnerships, attention 
should be given to 
the following 
prior to start of project:
Chain of custody methodology, 
including key identifier
Acceptable file formats and 
quality/compression level
Embedded and external 
metadata
Digital image performance 
requirements 
 metrics and 
tolerances
Transfer me
thodology
Validation method and 
confirmation of acceptance
Copy/
Record Status 
As determined by 
institution
digital master copies and digital 
access copies to be managed for 
the long
term to protect 
institutional
 investment 
for 
archives, may
 treat dig
ital copy 
as if a permanent record copy, 
but does not have record status 
Copy/
Record Status 
ay be different status 
depending on the records and 
projects
Assumed to be the same as the 
internal access projects; when 
the digital copy replaces 
original, d
igital copy is archival 
record copy (record of 
originating agency
 or when 
digital copy i
s preservation 
copy,
 retain and manage as if 
record copy, can become record 
copy if original deteriorates or 
is obsolete
Copy/
Record Status 
When the digital copy r
eplaces 
original, digital copy is 
permanent or 
archival record 
copy (record of originating 
agency) 
When digital copy is 
preservation copy 
 retain and 
manage as if 
permanent/
record 
copy, can become 
permanent/
record copy if 
original deteriorates or is 
obso
lete
Copy/
Record Status 
Assumed to be the same as the 
internal access projects
Copy/
Record Status 
Digital Master Copies or 
Digital Access Copies, unless it 
is determined preservation 
reformatting is desirable
Copy/Record
 Status 
May vary
Copy/Record
 Status 
May vary
Digitization of complete groups 
of 
holdings
Digitization may be done to 
reference quality levels 
for 
example, 
see the alternative 
minimum requirements in 
NARA’s 2004 
Technical 
Guidelines
Preservation reformatting 
information capt
ure levels only 
needed if records are at risk 
for example, 
see the 
recommended requirements in 
NARA’s 2004 
Technical 
Guidelines
Minimal complement of 
metadata to facilitate access 
Both appropriate digitization 
information capture levels and 
the compl
ement of appropriate 
metadata are necessary to 
protect 
institutional
 investment 
in the partnership
Digitization of complete groups 
of 
holdings
Digitization may be done to 
reference quality levels 
 for 
example,
 see the alternative 
minimum requirements in
NARA’s 2004 
Technical 
Guidelines
Preservation reformatting 
information capture levels only 
needed if records are at risk 
for example, 
see the 
recommended requirements in 
NARA’s 2004 
Technical 
Guidelines
Minimal complement of 
metadata to facilitate a
ccess 
Both appropriate digitization 
information capture levels and 
the complement of appropriate 
metadata are necessary to 
protect 
institutional
 investment 
in the digitization of records
Risk assessment and 
prioritization recommended 
 if 
risk is low, di
gitization may be 
done to reference quality levels 
to facilitate review process 
for 
example, 
see the alternative 
minimum requirements in 
NARA’s 2004 
Technical 
Guidelines
Preservation reformatting 
information capture levels only 
needed if records are at
 risk 
for example, s
ee the 
recommended requirements in 
NARA’s 2004 
Technical 
Guidelines
Minimal complement of 
metadata to facilitate access 
Both appropriate digitization 
information capture levels and 
the complement of appropriate 
metadata are necess
ary to 
protect 
institutional
 investment 
in the digitization of records
Requires formal risk assessment 
and prioritization
Digitization of complete groups 
of 
holdings
Digitization to be done to 
appropriate information capture 
levels for preservation 
 for
example,
 see the recommended 
requirements in NARA’s 2004 
Technical Guidelines
Collection of appropriate 
metadata for the long
term 
management and preservation 
of the digital copies 
Both appropriate digitization 
information capture levels and 
the compl
ement of appropriate 
metadata are necessary to 
prevent loss of information
Driven by exhibit, publication, 
and web schedules
Highly selective digitization of 
records from across 
institution
May require higher quality 
digitization than other activities
ay require the collection of 
more metadata than other 
digitization efforts 
 due to the 
high potential demand and use
Both appropriate digitization 
information capture levels and 
the complement of appropriate 
metadata are necessary to 
protect 
institutiona
 investment 
in the digitization of records
Driven by researcher and 
customer demand. 
Anniversaries of historic events 
can have an influence on 
requests.
Range from highly selective 
individual documents to 
complete groups
Digitization quality ranges 
base
d on customer needs
Minimal complement of 
metadata to facilitate access
Should meet a minimum 
information capture level
Should meet an appropriate 
minimum information capture level
* National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 
Technical Guideli
nes for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access 
 Creation of Production Master Files 
 Raster Images
, June 2004 (
http://www.archives.gov/preservation/technical/gu
idelines.pdf
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
General Components for
 Digitization Technical Requirements
Technical Guidelines
Requirements for capture/conversion of original materials, production workflow, editing and processing 
operations, use of targets, equipment characterization 
and performance, quality control, etc.
For example, 
NARA 2004 
Technical Guidelines for the Digitization of Archival Materials 
Available online at 
http://www.archives.gov/pres
ervation/technical/guidelines.pdf
Types of originals addressed
 textual, microfilm, still photographs, aerial photographs, maps, 
architectural and engineering plans, and objects and artifacts
Digitization information capture levels
Recommended requir
ements 
 preferred minimum requirements for preservation reformatting
For textual records 
 generally considered by the digital library community to be 
equivalent of 35mm microfilm
Alternative minimum requirements 
 appropriate for reference quality scanni
Equivalent to the Transfer Guidance for Federal Agencies
Specification used for NARA’s pilot Electronic Access Project
Definition of Digital Object
 Classes
 and Data Formats
Recommendations
 for digital object types for different types of 
originals
 and t
he corresponding 
data formats for the digital objects
Classification of Digital Copies Produced from Physical Records
Define
 the 
copy or 
record status of digital 
objects
, the purpose and
 type of digital files, and the 
generation of digital file (master or
 derivative).  
Copy or r
ecord status is a characteristic of a 
digital file, and the 
copy or 
record status can change over time. The purpose and type of digital file 
relates to the initial intended use and related information capture levels for digitization
. The 
combination of 
copy/
record status, purpose and type of file, and generation determines both 
retention as well as management requirements to ensure data integrity, authenticity, disaster 
recovery, preservation, and access over time.
Identification of
 Work Processes, Responsibilities, Roles, Resources
Identification of units and staff that will perform different digitization related activities and 
Identification of current and future IT systems/applications that may be used for different 
digitization 
related activities
, including storage
Metadata for Digitization 
Defines the recommended complement of metadata that could be considered for a digitization 
project, and identifies a list of minimum metadata elements for digitization projects, the category
of metadata to which they belong, and the level at which they might apply. In general, these 
elements encompass metadata that documents: the original record, the digital resource, the process 
of creating the digital resource, changes made to the digital r
esource over time, and the content
Identifies methods, tools, systems for implementing metadata in the digitization workflow
Defines standards, formats, and schemas followed
Identifiers
Determination of approach to identifiers, whether identifiers are sys
tem
assigned, actionable, 
descriptive, or all of the above; at what level identifiers are applied, what is their role in 
production workflow, metadata creation, and fixity information; how are they crosswalked across 
systems or structures; are they local o
r standardized; etc.
Quality Management
Defines 
all activities that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities,
as well as the 
implementation of these activities by processes such as quality planning, quality control, quality 
assurance, 
and quality improvement. See ISO 8402, 
Quality Management and Quality Assurance 
 Vocabulary
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Digitization Activities
 and Phases
Activities
The processes necessary to appropriately manage digitization projects include the following high
level 
activities
 which can be grouped into a sequence of general phases (see below)
Selection, Assessment, and Prioritization
 (to determine what materials will be 
selected, what projects will be approved, and how they will be prioritized)
Determination of access/use re
strictions
 or copyright
, condition of records, 
copy status of digital resources, and approach to digitization and metadata
Review and approval process
Of digitization projects
Of technical and metadata approaches
Project 
Planning, 
Management and Tracking
Determine what resources are required and available for projects
Communication about and coordination of digitization projects
Tracking of records throughout the process
Digital Copy Status and Records Management
Review reasons for digitization 
and evalua
te status of originals
Determine
 copy and record status for digital objects and for metadata to be 
created
Manage and document process appropriately to ensure authenticity of 
digital copies
Finalize status of digital copies and related metadata
Update stat
us of original records if needed
Preparation
 of Originals for Digitization
Bibliographic or a
rchival preparation
, p
reservation preparation
, etc.
Metadata
Collection, creation, management, and reuse in other systems of all types of 
metadata (not just desc
riptive)
Quality assurance and quality control of metadata
alidation and verification of metadata
 (both technical and curatorial)
Identifiers
Determination of format, use in workflow and systems, standardization
Digi
tization
Digital reformatting
Quality
management, quality 
assurance
 and quality control of digital copies
Metrological assurance and device conformance
Validation and verification 
curatorial
 verification of the digital copies; 
technical verification of digital objects to technical approach
Submission of Digital Resources to
Access and delivery systems
To digital repository
May include creation and ingestion of submission information 
package
Data Collection and Management
Entry, collection, import, export, etc. of digital copies and metada
Links to all appropriate IT systems
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Manage and make available digital copies and related metadata
May include management of archival information package 
(content preservation) and provision of access to 
dissemination information package to end
users
sessment and Evaluation
Per project
Assessment of impact of digitization on other activities 
such as 
business 
process
Data collection
Continual process improvement
Project assessment, evaluation, and reporting
Phases
Digitization can be broken out into
 a sequence of project phases. In all phases, activities (above) can be 
grouped into management, operational, and program assessment categories. The phases follow a 
general sequence of steps, and can be grouped into
Project planning activities
Pre
digiti
zation activities (selection, assessment, and prioritization; preparation, and 
metadata collection and creation)
Digitization activities
Post
digitization activities (
submission to delivery and repository systems, 
data 
collection and management; making dig
ital copies and associated metadata available; 
assessment and evaluation).
 Post digitization activities also include creation and 
ingestion of a submission information package into a repository, management and 
preservation of the archival information packa
ge, and provision of access to the 
dissemination information package to end users; however, these activities are not 
specifically addressed here.
Activities such as project management and tracking, 
quality management, process improvement, 
as 
well as metad
ata 
management/
collection (of all types
 of metadata
) are ongoing processes that will 
continue throughout the entire digitization project.
Specific work activities within these phases may take place in a single phase or in more than one 
phase. As an exampl
e, activities like collection/creation of descriptive information may take place at 
different and/or multiple points during the metadata collection and creation process, the digitization 
process, and/or the data collection and management process.
Therefor
e, many activities may take place at different points in the chronology and/or repeat at 
different stages of the workflow depending on the:
Type of original
, media type, and physical copies available to be digitized
Condition and usability of the 
original
 and/or copies to be digitized
Nature of the digitization effort, see approaches listed in the table on page 4
State and extent of processing 
done 
for the 
originals being digitized
Nature and extent of descriptive information available in 
hardcopy and/or 
electronic 
form
Many activities are also likely to occur concurrently, rather than sequentially. 
Planned digitization projects will likely start at the beginning of the sequence of phases, while other 
efforts (like exhibits, fee requests, reference requ
ests, etc.) will probably start in the middle of the 
sequence of phases. For example, exhibits, fee requests, and reference requests may start directly with 
digitization.
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On average
One third of the effort will be project planning, preservation prepar
ation, management, and 
oversight
One third of the effort will be archiv
al description and indexing
One third of the effort 
will be the actual digitization
The 
actual percentages of time spent
 on various activities will vary depending on the project.
For more information
 on the above estimates
 see 
The Cost of Digital Imaging Projects
, by Steven Puglia, RLG 
DigiNews, Volume 3, Number 5, October 15, 1999, at: 
http://digitalarchive.oclc.org/da/ViewObjectMain.jsp?fileid=0000070511:000006278991&reqid=7049#feature
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Overview and Sequencing of Activities for Digitization Projects 
 see the following outline for d
etailed listing and description of activities
Sequence of Project Phases 
1. Project Planning
2. Pre
Digitization
3. Digitization
 4. Post
Digitization
Selection, Ass
essment, 
and Prioritization
Consider nominations, proposals, and 
priorities for digitization
Collect information and evaluate all 
needs 
 curatorial and preservation
Review and approve projects/work 
based on defined criteria
Review and resolve restrictions
 and 
permissions issues, copyright, etc.
Etc.
Process improvement 
 see Assessment 
and Evaluation (Assess+Eval)
Project
Management
and Tracking
Communication and coordination
Define project parameters
Establish timeline
Track, manage, and document act
ivities
Etc.
All activities continue
All activities continue
All activities continue
Process improvement 
 see Assess+Eval
Management
 generally to be done prior to other activities in each 
phase
Copy Status and 
Records Management
Review reasons for digitization and 
evaluate status of original records
Preliminary determinati
on of copy and 
record status for digital objects and for 
metadata to be created
Etc.
Finalize recommendations for copy 
status of digital objects and status of 
metadata
Etc.
Manage and document process 
appropriately to ensure authenticity of 
digital copies
Etc.
Finalize status of digital copies and 
related metadata
Update status of original records if 
needed
Process improvement 
 see Assess+Eval
Etc.
Preparation
Identify and evaluate needs for records 
preparation
Archival/Curatorial prep
Preser
vation prep
Perform any additional preparation if 
needed
Process improvement 
 see Assess+Eval
Collection, Creation, 
Management and Use
Identify approach for all types of 
metadata
Define metadata scheme/template
Etc.
Identify available descri
ptive metadata
Collect/create appropriate descriptive 
metadata
QA/QC on metadata
Etc.
Collect/create appropriate metadata 
descriptive, technical, administrative, 
structural, etc.
QA/QC on metadata
Manage metadata
Etc.
Collect/create appropriate metadata 
desc., tech., admin., struct., etc.
Manage metadata
Link/aggregate digital objects and 
metadata
QA/QC on metadata
Process improvement 
 see Assess+Eval
Etc.
Digitization 
Creation of Digital 
Objects
Identify technical approaches for 
digitization
Def
ine technical approach/template
Etc.
Finalize technical approach for 
digitization
Establish QA/QC procedures for project
Etc.
Digital conversion
QA/QC on digital objects and 
conversion
Document conversion
Etc.
Process improvement 
 see Assess+Eval
Operational
Data
 Collection and 
Management
Identification and analysis of existing 
data
Access needed data in other IT systems
Etc.
Collect and manage new data in 
appropriate central and local systems
Etc.
Update data in other IT systems
Submit digital objects/metadata to
managed environment (repository) and 
other IT/access systems
Process improvement 
 see Assess+Eval
Etc.
Activities 
Program
Assessment
Assessment and 
Evaluation
Establish criteria and begin collecting 
data
Data collection
Data collection
Data collection
Project ass
essment, evaluation, and 
reporting
Assessment of impact on other activities
Process improvement
Etc.
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Detailed Outline
(Incomplete, 
additional
 detail to be determined
, and will vary from one organization/institution to another
 see 
Overview and Sequenci
ng of Activities for Digitization Projects
 chart on previous page for the scope of activities)
Project Planning
Selection, 
ssessment, and 
rioritization
Selection, assessment, and prioritization of digitization projects/candidate materials
Includes both
 external partnerships and internal access projects
Nominations for proposals/priorities for digitization informed by 
agency
/institutional
 priorities and researcher
/public
 interest
Priorities to provide enhanced access to high value and/or high use 
collect
ions/records
Scale, scope, comprehensiveness may be factors in selection and 
drive priorities for external/partnership digitization
Collect information, evaluate needs, and analyze 
collections/
records 
selected to determine status/extent of description
, cat
aloging,
 and 
processing, access/use restrictions and permissions, best format for 
digitization (images, full text, etc.), 
physical characteristics 
(bound/disbound, foldouts, etc.), 
physical condition, restrictions and 
copyright, etc.
Will the whole 
series/
collection, a selected segment, or a cross section be 
digitized? Will access be provided via bibliographic records, a finding aid, 
or some other means? If the collection is treated in selective fashion, will 
the access tool also be selective or will it des
cribe the entire collection or 
content body?
Digitization done in
house, by a partner, or by a contractor
Development of contract, RFP, procurement, etc.
Preservation reformatting
Priorities for digitization informed by formal risk assessments
Classified 
Records Review
 (for federal agencies)
Priorities for digitization informed by formal risk assessments
Exhibits and Publications
Priorities 
may be 
driven by Exhibits schedule
Evaluation of whether digitizing more than is required for an exhibit would 
benefi
t an existing digital collection or future digitization projects
Fee and Reference Requests (Keep digital copies produced 
across institutions? May 
be a
 decision to be made by 
staff
 based on importance of 
collections/
records or 
illustrates a type of 
origina
Conservation Treatment Documentation and Object Inventory
Digitization of Current Busine
ss Documents 
Approve projects and work based on defined decision
making criteria, including available 
resource and capacity analysis
Project 
anagement and 
ack
ing
Project management 
Communication and coordination
Coordina
te digitization activities across institution 
Define organizational roles and responsibilities 
Plan and establish staff resources 
Identify any constraints and challenges 
 relating to techni
cal, staffing, 
financial, and scheduling issues 
Acceptance and review of project proposals 
Access
 driven projects 
Risk assessments for preservation reformatting projects 
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Identification and definition of project parameters and approaches to digitization
 and 
metadata (consult existing metadata schema if possible) 
Determination of identifiers and/or file naming approaches
Identification of any IT issues: databases, software, sto
rage needed, Web issues, etc.  
Identification of available 
bibliographic reco
rds, 
finding aids
 and existing 
descriptiv
e metadata, plan for processing/cataloging
Review/approval of procedures for conversion/reformatting, metadata, digital copies, 
etc. 
Ensure compliance with specification/guidelines for digital resource creation an
metadata, and with pre
defined templates and profiles  
Creation and management of appropriate metadata schema 
Manage workflow for all activities
Management of project documentation, including compliance with industry 
standards
Identification of availab
le resources 
 staff, supplies, equipment, etc.
Determine if any staff training is needed
Address issues of conversion site if applicable (particularly with partner projects) in 
terms of transfer
 of originals
, security, etc.
Establish project timeline
Proj
ect timeline may be influenced by other requirements; if so, resources 
required to complete the digitization effort may need to be changed to meet 
specific deadlines
Project tracking
Track, manage, and document activities and inventory projects
Document a
ll procedures and processes
Copy s
tatus and 
ecords 
anagement
Review reasons for digitization and evaluate status of original records
/originals
Preliminary determination of copy and
/or
 record status for digital objects and for metadata to 
be created
 Pre
Digitization 
Project management continues
Project tracking continues
Tracking location of 
originals
 during pre
digitization processes
Data assessment and aggregation
Establish access to any existing metadata, documentation, 
cataloging, 
or archiva
description to be used to facilitate the digitization process and the intellectual 
organization of the digital resources
Identification of 
bibliographic records, 
finding aids, indices, folder 
lists, inventories, etc. in both hard copy and electronic form
Identification of electronic metadata
 held
 in management systems 
and access systems
Quality assurance, quality control, verification and validation
Preparation
Curatorial/a
rchival preparation of physical 
originals/records
Analysis of 
originals
 (formats,
 organization, condition, copies, 
size, etc.)
Physical and intellectual organization
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Collect and record a more detailed level of descriptive metadata 
during the course of 
curatorial/
archival preparation work to 
enhance description in existing systems
Cre
e, assign, and 
record appropriate records 
management
/administrative
 metadata for new digital resources
Batch records for conversion
Preservation preparation
Evaluation of physical condition and readiness for scanning
Holdings maintenance, if needed
Conser
vation prep, if needed
Batch records for conversion
Requirements review
Define metadata requirements for different collections/groupings/classes of resources 
and determine 
minimal
 level of appropriate metadata to provide adequate access to 
and long
term p
reservation of digital copies
Identification of appropriate metadata schema or templates
Identification of appropriate minimum complement of metadata
Descriptive, 
administrative, 
technical, and structural metadata
Indexing
 if done before scanning
Records 
management metadata
, if applicable
Determination of identifiers and/or file naming approach
In registry
Assigned by system or repository
Actionable at file level, resolved by system
Identifiers used by/in descriptive systems
Identifiers used in production
 workflow
Original identifiers
Role of identifiers in fixity, authenticity auditing and reporting
Application of identifiers at what level (collection, series, item; 
digital object, file)
Crosswalking of identifiers across systems
Standardized identifiers 
or local identifiers
Definition of essential characteristics 
curatorial/
archival and technical
Define legal admissibility/authenticity of digital copies of records, if 
applicable
Determination of appropriate approach and quality levels for digitization
Approaches to digitization (including image capture specifications, 
testing and evaluation, workflow, header information, image 
processing, compression, file naming, file directory structure, file 
formats for archiving and for presentation, etc.)
Conversi
on specifications for preservation reformatting
Determine any special production needs
Versions 
 determination of types and number of digital versions to be created during 
project
Define copy type/record status for resources being created (such as 
preser
vation master, production master, derivative files, etc.)
Define levels of access and storage for copy types
Determination of naming and directory structure schemes
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Determination of file storage needs
Establish QC/QA Procedures
Define user interface an
d digital resource delivery requirements, if necessary
Copyright and privacy issues
Review and identify use and access restrictions on collections/items
Resolve and restrictions and permissions issues
Digital copy status and r
ecords 
anagement
Finalize r
ecommendations for copy status of digital objects and status of metadata
Determine and assign responsibility for managing the digital objects and metadata
May vary depending on copy/file types for versions of the same resources
3. Digitization
Project m
anagement continues
Project tracking continues
Monitor status and products of all activities
Check in and check out of items to 
production unit
Data entry
Record any pre
existing metadata needed to begin conversion (may include job 
tracking information, 
descriptive metadata, etc.)
Digital 
Conversion
Capture done according to specifications 
house
, by partners, and/or by contractors
Image target use for performance verification
Device conformance testing and calibration
Initial and on
going testing of d
igital image quality and equipment 
based on established benchmarks and specifications
Digitization of existing documentation, if 
not already in electronic form
Digitization of 
descriptive information, 
finding aids, indices, folder lists, 
inventories, etc. 
if not in electronic format
Perform any correction/editing/processing to digital files
Image evaluation 
 objective and subjective
Create and track production metadata
OCR and text conversion/mark
up, rekeying, etc.
Technical, structural, administrative
, and descriptive metadata creation and collection
Define requirements for and record metadata for different 
collections/groupings/classes of resources at different levels
Create and record
/embed
 metadata into appropriate systems/headers
Auto characterizat
ion and manual and automated collection of technical and other 
metadata to carry forward as files are moved into other systems 
Indexing 
 minimal intellectual organization of digital objects to match the appropriate level 
within the archival descriptive 
hierarchy
 or to match the intellectual organization of the 
collection
. Indexing is primarily geared towards
describing and organizing large groups of 
digital versions of physical records. Indexing provides a level of association and organization 
of digital
 resources so they can be effectively searched and retrieved.
Role of identifiers
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Quality 
management 
 quality 
assurance and quality control of digital copies and metadata to 
ensure conformance to guidelines
As with any manufacturing process, exceptions o
r defects can consume an inordinate 
amount of resources; the further downstream the error detection, the greater the 
resource use to correct
Defect identification and inspection and verification of files
Automated quality assurance/quality control for both
 digital objects and for 
related metadata (all types of metadata 
 including technical, administrative, 
descriptive, etc.)
Follow up by staff on problems identified by automated checks
Statistically valid sampling checks by staff, automated identification 
of 
resources to be checked
Rework for error identification
Ensure compliance with templates/profiles
Follow established metrology protocols and document certifications, or correct and 
replace as required
Documentation of quality assurance/quality control p
rocess
Create and record QC/QA metadata
Data entry/i
mport
Import technical, structural, descriptive, production, 
administrative, rights, 
QC/QA 
metadata into appropriate systems on local level
Import assets into appropriate systems on local level
Collect a
nd manage new data in central and local systems
Version c
ontrol
Define and record relationship between types of files (such as preservation master, 
production master, derivative files, etc.)
Automate production of derivative files and versions
Automation 
of metadata into and out of header tags and files (such as XMP, IPTC, 
etc.)
Perform inspection and verification of derivative files and versions
Create and apply checksums to appropriate versions
Create batches
Aggregate multiple versions, files, and metad
ata files into a “package” for 
submission/delivery into storage
Role for identifiers
Copy status and r
ecords 
anagement
Manage and document process appropriately to ensure authenticity of digital copies
. Post
Digitization
Project management continues
Project tracking continues
Copy status and records m
anagement
Finalize status of digital copies and related metadata
date status of original records/originals 
if needed
Complete 
bibliographic/
archival description and collection and creation of any add
itional 
appropriate metadata (descriptive, structural, administrative, technical) not collected in earlier 
processes
Manage metadata
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Finalize the complement of metadata needed
Appropriate complement of various metadata to ensure management of assets for 
desired retention time period (short or long term)
Quality assurance and quality control of metadata and digital objects
Conformance to standards, data types, templates/profiles
Accuracy
Defect identification and error correction
Automated quality assuran
ce/quality control for both digital objects and 
for related metadata (all types of metadata 
 including technical, 
administrative, descriptive, etc.)
Follow up by staff on problems identified by automated checks
Statistically valid 
visual checks by staff (
i.e., color and tone accuracy),
automated identification of resources to be checked
Record actual rework/defect correction efforts
Documentation of quality assurance/quality control process
Curatorial/a
rchival validation and verification of digital versio
ns in comparison to original
from 
curatorial/
archival perspective to ensure digital copies satisfy requirements for authentic 
digital versions
Technical validation
 to industry specifications for well
formed digital objects and data 
formats;
 and 
assessmen
 of digital 
objects to verify they meet local profile and requirements
Make digital objects and metadata available to staff and researchers
Deliver digital objects via web
based/delivery systems for research
Deliver high
quality digital products via the 
web and via optical media
Aggregate and associate digital objects and metadata files for packaging and transfer 
Create and associate multiple low resolution derivative files
Assign checksums
Export 
 flexible packaging of both digital objects and metadat
a for delivery 
into other systems using different metadata schema
Submit resources to access
/delivery
 systems and make resources 
available online
Submit resources to digital repository
Export metadata in different formats to other systems
Export digital fi
les to other systems
Acceptance/confirmation of export/submission of digital objects and metadata 
into other systems
Update metadata in other management and access systems as needed to synchronize or 
replace with new metadata generated during digitization
 projects
Linking of metadata between systems
Provide routine reference to digitized records via on
line systems
Track and associate new digital/analog versions to the 
physical originals
Manage digital resources in appropriate actively managed storage e
nvironment
After submission of
 completed digital objects and related metadata to long term 
digital repository 
Ensure provenance and authenticity of digital resources
Ensure data integrity
Ensure disaster recovery
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Project assessment, reporting and evaluat
ion
Project Assessment
Web, Image File, and Database Usage Analyses
Cost
Benefit Analyses
Assessment of impact on other activities
Assess effects of digitization on traditional reference activities (
e.g., 
online 
access, in
person access, send all source a
nalog content offsite?) and researcher 
requests, and update procedures
Identify and correct problems and errors relating to both digital objects and related metadata
Correct problems/deficiencies on a routine basis for all categories of digitization
Less
ons learned
Unexpected results, scoping errors, etc.
Process improvement 
 as needed update workflows, tools, procedures, policies, etc.
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IT Infrastructure Needs
Access:
Access to both digital files and metadata will be needed by both the public (online
) and by internal 
staff for the purposes of research, exhibits, publications, sale, etc.
Provide a centralized IT workspace so copies are accessible to all staff during the 
work process in order to complete description, quality control work, etc.
Versions 
will be moved into other systems for access, display, presentation, etc.
Identify new digital versions in management systems to reduce duplication 
of digitization efforts and to minimize handling of records
Metadata will be moved into other systems for acc
ess, display, presentation, etc.
System to assign/register identifiers
System to resolve identifiers, if actionable
Managed Storage:
Infrastructure to store, manage, and provide access to digital copies 
Data storage 
 master files, access files, meta
ta, and data migration issues
Need to ensure the
 data integrity, disaster recovery, and authenticity of the digital 
resources created
Provide minimal bit preservation activity
Accept packages of digital files, versions, metadata, and information about 
sub
mission process (verification and validation information, etc.)
Ensure viability of data and maintenance of essential characteristics
Incorporate checksums, validation, and verification functionality
Monitoring
Track change history to digital objects
Authe
nticity/provenance chain
Perform b
ackups and redundancy to appropriate levels to ensure data integrity and 
disaster recovery
Define server requirements 
 develop configuration management plan
Network security issues
Systems documentation
Plan and budget fo
r systems upgrades
Site licenses and hardware/software maintenance contracts
Move
 objects into one or more long
term destinations
bility to transfer digital objects and metadata into other systems for access purposes
Ensure appropriate intellectual contro
l of digital resources
Synchronization of metadata and digital objects
Updating of metadata and digital objects
Manage relationships and associations between versions/multiple 
components, parent
child relationships, etc.
At some appropriate point, digital 
resources and metadata move into 
digital 
repository
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Resources
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)
http://digitizationguidelines.gov
FADGI Glossary
http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/glossary.php
Library of Congress, 
NDLP Project Planning Checklist.
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/prjplan.html
NC Echo Gui
delines for Digitization 2007 Revised Edition
http://www.ncecho.org/dig/digguidelines.shtml
Washington State Library, 
Digital Best Practices
http://digitalwa.statelib.wa.gov/newsite/best.htm
Northeast Document Conservation Center, 
Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Tool for 
Preservation and Access
http://www.nedcc.org/resources/digitalhandbook/dman.pdf
Bibliographic Center for Research, Collaborative Digitization Project, 
Best Practices and Publications
http://www.bcr.org/dps/cdp/be
st/index.html
NINCH Guide to Good Practice in the Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage
Materials
http://www.nyu.edu/its/humanities//ninchguide/
The Archives New 
Zealand 
6 Digitisation Standard
http://continuum.archives.govt.nz/files/file/standards/s6.pdf
ARMA International, 
Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles
http://www.arma.org/garp/
Library of Congress, 
Sustainability of Digital Formats, Planning for Library of Congress Collections
http://www.digitalpreservation
.gov/formats/index.shtml
National Library of the Netherlands (KB), 
Evaluating File Formats for Long
term Preservation
http://www.kb
.nl/hrd/dd/dd_links_en_publicaties/publicaties/KB_file_format_evaluation_method_2702200
8.pdf
he State and University Library
, Arhus, Denmark,
 and the Royal Library, 
Copenhagen, Denmark, 
Handling File Formats
 (2004)
http://netarchive.dk/publikationer/FileFormats
2004.pdf
National Archives, UK, 
Selecting File Formats for Long
Term Preservation
ttp://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/selecting_file_formats.pdf
National Archives and Records Administration,
Technical Guidelines for the Digit
ization of Archival 
Materials for Electronic Access 
 Creation of Production Master Files 
 Raster Imag
es, 
June 2004.
http://www.archives.gov/preservation/technical/guidelines.pdf
Puglia, Steven
The Cost of Digital Imaging Projects
RLG DigiNews, Volume 3, 
Number 5, October
 15, 
http://digitalarchive.oclc.org/da/ViewObjectMain.jsp?fileid=0000070511:000006278991&reqid=7049#feat
ure
Digitization Activitie
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Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative
DIGITIZATION ACTIVITIES
Project Planning and Management Outline
Version 1.0
November
 2009
Digitization Activitie
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Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Table of Contents
Introduction
Defines
 the purpose of this document by
outlining 
high
level activities related to the digitization of
 cultural 
heritage materials
or 
planning and management purposes
e have defined a generic sequence of activities 
and workflow for digitization. We relate
 these activities to library/archival issues, imaging and conversion 
work, and IT infrastructure in 
particular. 
We discuss guidance and
 related framework
s, including record 
keeping principles and sustainability fa
ctors that should be considered
Assumptions
  7
Provides general
 assumpt
ions regarding
 digitization, including aspects that may
 differ dep
ending on the 
rationale for digitizing
as well as on the nature of the originals. As there is no single approach to digitization, 
specific work process
 should be tailored to each individual digitization effort.
General Policy Issues
Lists
 policy
related is
sues to be addressed from
 an institutional 
perspective
, including: policies and 
procedures rel
ating to digitization
, recommendations for sustainable data formats, creation and management 
of metadata schema, definition of essential characteristic
s, appropriate 
information capture and 
quality levels 
for digitization, verifying 
authenticity of digital copies, and ensuring appropriate records management of 
digital resources, if applicable.
Approaches to Digitization Chart
Illustrates
a comple
ment of different approaches to and purposes for digitization
, including
 improving access 
to collections, preservation reformatting, digitization for exhibits and reference requests, conservation 
documentation, classified records review, and digitization 
of current business rec
ords.
Digitization Technical Requirements
  10
Lists 
components that form the basis of
 digitization specifications.
 Technic
al requirements
 sho
uld address: 
digital conversion parameters for
 original materials, recommended data for
mats and digital object types, 
assignment of copy or record status, identification of work process
es, responsibilities, roles,
 resou
rces, 
metadata, identifiers,
 quality management
, etc
Digitization Activities
  11
Describes
 the
 nature and
 sequence of 
high
level activit
ies
necessary to 
plan, 
conduct and 
manage digitization 
projects
, including
: selection, assessment, and prioritization; project planning, management, and tracking; 
opy status and records management; preparation of originals for digitizati
on; metadata creation and 
management; digitization; data collection and management; and assessment and evaluation.
Digitization Activities Chart
  14
ovides a visual overview of the relationships and sequencing of digitization activities.
Detailed O
utline
  15
Provides an in
depth outline illustrating
 the management, operational, and assessment activities within each 
of the four phases of digitizat
ion workflow
Infrastructure Issues
  22
Provides a 
brief outline of IT infrastructure
 need
s to s
upport and 
facilitate digitization projects
Resources
  23
List of resources consulted for this document.
Digitization Activitie
November 4
, 2009
Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiativ
www.digitizationguidelines.gov
Table of Contents
Introduction
Defines
 the purpose of this document by
outlining 
high
level activities related to the digitization of
 cultural 
heritage materials
or 
planning and management purposes
e have defined a generic sequence of activities 
and workflow for digitization. We relate
 these activities to library/archival issues, imaging and conversion 
work, and IT infrastructure in 
particular. 
We discuss guidance and
 related framework
s, including record 
keeping principles and sustainability fa
ctors that should be considered
Assumptions
  7
Provides general
 assumpt
ions regarding
 digitization, including aspects that may
 differ dep
ending on the 
rationale for digitizing
as well as on the nature of the originals. As there is no single approach to digitization, 
specific work process
 should be tailored to each individual digitization effort.
General Policy Issues
Lists
 policy
related is
sues to be addressed from
 an institutional 
perspective
, including: policies and 
procedures rel
ating to digitization
, recommendations for sustainable data formats, creation and management 
of metadata schema, definition of essential characteristic
s, appropriate 
information capture and 
quality levels 
for digitization, verifying 
authenticity of digital copies, and ensuring appropriate records management of 
digital resources, if applicable.
Approaches to Digitization Chart
Illustrates
a comple
ment of different approaches to and purposes for digitization
, including
 improving access 
to collections, preservation reformatting, digitization for exhibits and reference requests, conservation 
documentation, classified records review, and digitization 
of current business rec
ords.
Digitization Technical Requirements
  10
Lists 
components that form the basis of
 digitization specifications.
 Technic
al requirements
 sho
uld address: 
digital conversion parameters for
 original materials, recommended data for
mats and digital object types, 
assignment of copy or record status, identification of work process
es, responsibilities, roles,
 resou
rces, 
metadata, identifiers,
 quality management
, etc
Digitization Activities
  11
Describes
 the
 nature and
 sequence of 
high
level activit
ies
necessary to 
plan, 
conduct and 
manage digitization 
projects
, including
: selection, assessment, and prioritization; project planning, management, and tracking; 
opy status and records management; preparation of originals for digitizati
on; metadata creation and 
management; digitization; data collection and management; and assessment and evaluation.
Digitization Activities Chart
  14
ovides a visual overview of the relationships and sequencing of digitization activities.
Detailed O
utline
  15
Provides an in
depth outline illustrating
 the management, operational, and assessment activities within each 
of the four phases of digitizat
ion workflow
Infrastructure Issues
  22
Provides a 
brief outline of IT infrastructure
 need
s to s
upport and 
facilitate digitization projects
Resources
  23
List of resources consulted for this document.