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2D Digitization of Plant Cell Areolation by Polarized
2D Digitization of Plant Cell Areolation by Polarized Light Microscopy1 O V Ivanov and

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2D Digitization of Plant Cell Areolation by Polarized

2D Digitization of Plant Cell Areolation by Polarized Light Microscopy1 O V Ivanov and M S Ignatov Lebedev Physical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Main Botanical Garden

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	y, 2013, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 103…112
. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © O.V. Ivanov, M.
S. Ignatov, 2013, published in Tsitolog
iya, 2013, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 000…000.
Features of a specific pattern created by cell walls
The article was translated by the authors.
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1  2013
IVANOV, IGNATOV
for the further analyses. A simple and effective way to
contrast boundaries is the polarized microscopy, the
device used in this paper. It permits making boundary
images bright and variegated, and intracellular fields
boundaries work as polarization filters.
and an analyzer were installed on the microscope.
larized images, the polarizing filters were withdrawn
from the microscope optical chain.
Photography was taken with a CarlZeyss NU…2/e
. That is why three rotation angles suffice to display
microscope stage and the objective are still during the
photographing, a composite image can be obtained
however, not composite photos but triples of photos
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
cessing. Digital RAWformat
twodimensional matrix of triples of numbers corre
and blue (RGB), with their combinations giving the
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1 2013
„a composite image of frames 
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1  2013
IVANOV, IGNATOV
„a composite image of frames 
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1 2013
pixels. The side is chosen as follows: the photo is
enlarged such that its pixelation becomes visible, and
divided by 5. Thus, from 30 to 100150 squares appear
inside a cell (some examples of such squares, one
inside a cell and another one on its boundary, are given
much sensitive to the choice of the square side, and
n from three separate photos
), two histo
chroma are built (Figs. 3
data from three photos (Fig. 3
) are combined (such
) is much narrower than for the square
). We note
that the appearance of squares from the cell center
direction, which shows the cell boundary optical
chroma histograms for all squares (Fig. 3
gram function domain with the initial and final seg
Two peaks can be clearly seen on the distributions
of both hue and chroma: narrow histograms of uni
color segments from the cell centers form the left peak,
threshold separating the squares of the cell center from
contact each other, they are considered to belong to
ber, which is also given to all of its squares. Two histo
grams of hue and chroma are built once again for all
the cell of a given number.
5„Next, each square is divided into four for the
reasons of homogeneity and convenience of data stor
They are attached to the interior ones in two steps.
have a histogram that fully fits into the cell histogram.
Squares are considered adjacent if they have a com
mon boundary or a vertex. The attached squares are
again marked interior and obtain a mark from their
squares, unless we achieve the state when the full
review of the list of squares involves no attachments.
ment. Two steps are necessary to exclude the growth of
clusters resulting in nonconvex hornyŽ cells. With
because the squares adjacent to several cells do not
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1  2013
IVANOV, IGNATOV
representativeness of the data due to a limited field of
view. The source of errors of the third type will be con
sidered in our next publication. Here, we confine our
selves to the question of errors related to the accuracy
number of sides and the correlation of sizes of the
2„
precise data (Ivanov, Ignatov, 2011). At the same time,
paradoxical though it may sound, the cell length and
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1 2013
020406080100
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1  2013
IVANOV, IGNATOV
(b)
(c)
(d)
151
171
168
174
152
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1 2013
(d)
sition relative to the costa.
CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGY Vol. 7  No. 1  2013
IVANOV, IGNATOV
is not bounded above and changes from 1 to infinity;
that is why, if it exceeds 2, the cell is certainly noncon
cave, although nonconcave cells can have the ratio
well characterized by the lengthtowidth ratio.
ent leaves of the species under survey differ persistently
in the following way: (1) the cell area from the costa to
P. medium
P. elatum
P.medium
majority of cells are oriented in two ranges, 0…10
, which is effectively the same range.
views of the oblique rows in 
P. elatum
P. medium
, helps clarify some intuitive
apriori
Zdunek, A., Konskyy, R., Cyb
and Umeda, M., Visual Texture Analysis for cell size Mea
surements from Confocal Images, 
vol. 21, pp. 409…414.
Electron. J. Polish Agricult. Univ.
, 2004, vol. 7, no. 1. http://
www.ejpau.media.pl/volume7/issue1/engineering/art01.html)